Vascular effects of advanced glycation end-products: content of immunohistochemically detected AGEs in radial artery samples as a predictor for arterial calcification and cardiovascular risk in asymptomatic patients with chronic kidney disease.
Impact Factor: 2.137
Level of Evidence: III
Sample Size: 54 CKD patients (33 hemodialyzed, 21 predialyzed).
Protocol: Examined parameters included BMI, incidence of diabetes, plasma fasting glucose, AGEs, soluble receptor for AGEs and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging, serum C-reactive protein (hsCRP), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and fetuin-A
Statistical Analysis: Shapiro-Wilk test for normality.
Study Type: Experiment-based article.
Results: Vascular content of AGEs was positively correlated with BMI, hsCRP, fetuin-A, PAI-1, and DPPH. Only fetuin-A was an independent predictor in multiple regression. There was a significant positive trend in the intensity of AGEs immunostaining among patients with grades 1, 2, and 3 calcifications, which predicted 3-year cardiovascular mortality irrespective of patient's age.
Discussion/Conclusion: The results of the study show a correlation between AGEs in the development of medial arterial calcification which can, in turn, impact the arterial AGE deposition on cardiovascular mortality in CKD patients. The intensity of AGE deposition in arterial media significantly predicted not only the advancement of medial arterial calcification but also cardiovascular mortality in CKD patients.